Seamus Breathnach’s examines Irish society through its norm-creating as well as its norm-breaking agencies. These include the Church controls of Ireland’s State -- its Schools, Law, Police, Courts, Prisons, Media and much more...


2.) History/Anthropology

    2.) History/Anthropology
    2a.) Emile Durkheim On Crime And Punishment
    2b.) The Criminological History of Ireland

  2c.) Myth and Meaning in the Religious Persecution of Alice Kyteler (an Irish Witch) AND
    Adam Dubh O’Tuathaill (a Gaelic Chieftain)
    2d.) A Criminal Anthropology of the Christian Conquest in Ireland


Appendix ii


Extracted from
The History and Antiquities of the County of Carlow


John Ryan, Esq., M.R.S.L.
(Dublin 1833); Pages 35 and 36

Adrian the bishop, the servant of the servants of God, to his most dear son in Christ, the noble king of England, sendeth greeting, and apostolic benediction. Your magnificence hath been very careful and studious how you might enlarge the church of God here on earth, and increase the number of his saints and elect in heaven; in that, as a good catholic king, you have and do, by all means, labour and travail to enlarge and increase God’s church, by teaching the ignorant people the true and Christian religion, and in abolishing and rooting up the weeds of sin and wickedness.

And wherein you have, and do crave, for your better furtherance, the help of the apostolic see, wherein more speedily and discreetly you proceed, the better success, we hope, god will send, for all they which of a fervent zeal and love in religion do begin and enterprise any such thing, shall, no doubt, in the end, have a good and prosperous success.

And as for Ireland, and all other islands, where Christ is known, and the Christian religion received, it is out of all doubt, and your Excellency well knoweth, they do all appertain and belong to the right of St. Peter, and of the church of Rome, and we are so much the more ready, desirous and willing to sow the acceptable seed of god’s word, because we know the same in the latter day will be most severely required at our hands (p.35) You have (our well-beloved son in Christ) advertised and signified unto us, that You will enter into the land and realm of Ireland; to the end to bring them to obedience unto law, and under your subjection, and to root out from among them their foul sins and wickedness; as also to yield and pay yearly out of every house, a yearly pension of one penny to St. Peter, and besides, also will defend and keep the rites of these churches whole and inviolate.

We therefore, well allowing and favouring this your godly disposition, and commendable affection, do accept, ratify and assent unto this your petition; and do grant, that you (for the dilating of God’s church, the punishment of sin, there forming of manners, planting of virtue, and the increasing of Christian religion)do enter to possess that land, and there to execute according to your wisdom, whatsoever shall be for the honour of god, and the safety of the realm.

And further, also, we do strictly charge and require, that all the people of that land do with all humbleness, dutifulness and honour, receive and accept you as their liege lord and sovereign, reserving and excepting the right of holy church to be inviolably preserved; as also the yearly pension of Peter-pence, out of every house; which we require to be truly answered to St. Peter and the Church of Rome.

If therefore you do mind to bring your godly purpose to effect, endeavour to travail to reform the people to some better order and trade of life, and that also by your self, and by such others as you shall think meet, true and honest in their life, manners and conversation, to the end the church of god may be beautified, the true Christian religion sowed and planted, and all other things done, that by any means shall or may be to God’s honour, and salvation of men’s souls, whereby you may in the end receive of God’s hands the reward of everlasting life; and also, in the mean time, and in this life, carry a glorious fame, and an honourable report among all nations.

Appendices: Appendix i :|: Appendix ii :|: Appendix iii :|: Appendix iv :|: Appendix v

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